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COOL的回归? 立法将恢复肉类的原产地标识

克莱尔·卡尔森

Mandatory country of origin labeling (COOL) is back on the table with the American Beef Labeling Act, 2015年COOL被废除后,哪家公司会恢复对牛肉的供应. 如果通过, rancher advocates say profits of independent cattle producers could increase as consumers choose to buy U.S.以支持国家的农村社区. 

“Consumers understand the need to strengthen the economic foundation of rural America and they know that they can achieve that through their purchasing choices,比尔·布拉德说, 美国R-CALF首席执行官, 为牧场主和牧牛人设立的合法基金. 

2013年,美国农业部 收紧 its regulation of meat labeling to require sellers to provide consumers with more detailed information about the meat’s origins, 包括动物出生的国家, 提高了, 和屠杀.

与此同时,修订后的条例开始生效, 牛的价格和零售牛肉价格开始上涨, 据布拉德. 

“在2013年和2014年, 牛肉和牛的价格升至历史最高名义水平, 牛生产者终于从头头娱乐官网中恢复了利润,”布拉德说.

Advocates point to these profit increases as evidence of consumer behavior influencing the domestic meat market because of COOL.

艾伦·沙梅尔,一位在蒙大拿州刘易斯顿附近饲养小牛的牧场主,他是 北方平原资源委员会在此期间,该公司的利润大幅增长. 当COOL被安装时, 沙梅尔的小牛犊每磅多赚了大约1美元, 当它们被卖到中西部的饲养场时,重达700磅. 沙梅尔每年卖出300到350头小牛, 这是每年210美元的增长,他的生意赚了1万美元. 

沙梅尔说:“头头娱乐官网所有的投入都是在当地购买的,这样钱就留在了这个地区。. 输入, 或者农民用来养牛的供给和基础设施, 包括矿物质和饲料, 新机器, 和农场的更新.

这距离2013年的法规实施仅仅两年, a World Trade Organization (WTO) compliance panel ruled that COOL hampered competition livestock from Mexico and Canada. “Corporate meatpackers were able to convince Canada and Mexico to file a claim to the WTO saying that country of origin labeling was an illegal trade barrier,吉本斯说:“. 

世贸组织 授权 墨西哥和加拿大对美国征收了10亿美元的报复性关税.S. 因为酷,启动国会废除这一要求. 

In late 2015, most of COOL’s provisions were revoked for both muscle-cut and ground beef and pork. 现在,任何在美国以外出生、饲养和屠宰的肉类.S. can be labeled “Product of the USA” as long as the product was packaged within the United States. Critics of “Product of the USA” labeling say it misleads consumers and undercuts the profits of independent producers in the U.S. 当时牛的价格很低. 

One agricultural economist isn’t convinced the repeal of COOL caused the drop in cattle prices seen after 2015. 

“是相关性还是因果关系??普渡大学(Purdue University)教授杰森·卢斯克(Jayson Lusk)说. “I tend to be on the side that even though COOL was repealed at about the same time there was a drop in cattle prices and loss of profitability, 在我看来,它并没有真正与酷联系在一起.” 

根据Lusk的说法,COOL是在牛的供应不足时制定的. “People were reducing herd sizes because of a lot of stuff that had gone on a few years earlier like droughts in the West and the ethanol market and corn prices,”Lusk说. “这确实推动了(牛)价格在2014年和2015年上涨.”

对沙梅尔这样的牧场主来说,2015年后的收入损失是一个重大打击. 

“当头头娱乐官网的农场损失了那笔额外的钱时,整个社区都蒙受了损失. And when you multiply that by all the other ranchers in the area, it’s just tremendous,” he said. 

现在, Shammel’s beef is indistinguishable from imported beef in the grocery store because of the less strict requirements for “Product of the USA” labeling. 

Efforts to reinstate COOL are growing with the recent introduction of the American Beef Labeling Act into the House and Senate. 在两党政客的支持下,参议院的这项法案获得通过 介绍了 in September of 2021 by Senator John Thune (R-South Dakota) and is co-sponsored by nine other senators: Jon Tester (D-Montana), 迈克·朗兹(南达科塔共和党), 科里·布克(新泽西民主党), 约翰·胡芬(北达科他州共和党), 本·雷Luján (d -新墨西哥州), 辛西娅Lummis (R-Wyoming), 马丁·海因里希(新墨西哥州民主党), 约翰·布拉索(R-Wyoming), 柯尔斯滕·吉利布兰德(d -纽约). 

众议院的法案, 介绍了 在2022年3月下旬,由美国国务院和美国国务院共同主办.S. 众议员兰斯·古登(共和党-德克萨斯州)和罗·康纳(民主党-加利福尼亚州). 

美国牛肉标签法案 comes in the wake of new strides by the Biden administration’s announcement that it will enforce antitrust laws and fight corporate consolidation. 2021年7月,拜登总统签署了一项 行政命令 促进美国经济的竞争, 包括农业部门, 少数公司控制了农业相关头头娱乐官网的大部分.

四家肉类加工业公司控制着85%的牛肉行业:JBS S.A.,嘉吉,泰森食品和国家牛肉包装公司. 

“The ability of these multinational meatpackers to import meat and beef from all around the world and undercut prices paid to U.S. independent family cattle farmers is one of the reasons they’re able to take advantage of their market control, 增加利润, 而且不给制片人报酬,密苏里农村危机中心的吉本斯说. 如果消费者有更多关于食物来源的信息, rancher advocates say this could help shift the beef market into the hands of independent producers. 

Advocacy groups like Western Organization of Resource Councils are working to get the bill more co-sponsors, 包括参议员史蒂夫·戴恩斯(蒙大拿州共和党)和参议员凯文·克莱默(北达科他州共和党). 两人都还没有签约. 

“利益相关者对立法的意见仍存在分歧, 但头头娱乐官网都想找到持久的解决方案,让美国牧场主和农民继续经营下去,参议员克莱默在给每日那边的一封电子邮件中说. “We must push for solutions which allow American producers to differentiate their higher quality product while not triggering billions in retaliatory tariffs with our largest trading partners.”

Skeptics of COOL have cited concerns that the WTO would have similar opposition to the bill as in 2015. 美国牛肉标签法案 地址 他说,“美国贸易代表, 与农业部长协商, shall determine a means of reinstating mandatory country of origin labeling for beef … that is in compliance with all applicable rules of the World Trade Organization.”

牛 rancher and Colorado Department of Agriculture commission member Kathryn Bedell isn’t worried about retaliation from the WTO if COOL were reinstated. 比德尔表示:“我认为,与2015年相比,头头娱乐官网在向WTO发起挑战方面准备得更充分了。. “We’re seven years down the road and there are different people there and different things that have happened around the world.” 

比德尔在科罗拉多州的德贝克市外饲养草饲牛肉. 她是她的牛的唯一主人, handling them throughout the entire process – from birth to slaughter to sale to the consumer. Bedell is also a staunch advocate for regenerative agriculture and responsible land stewardship. 

“就在大山谷里, 像免耕和覆盖种植这样的方法真的开始流行了,比德尔说:“. “传统的养牛谷物耕作是可行的, but it actually works better to put livestock on the land because then you’re recycling nutrients.” Recycling nutrients means ranchers buy less fertilizer as cows put nutrients back on the field through their manure. 

“You’re cutting down on your inputs like pesticides, which makes the world healthier,比德尔说:“. 

这些价值观影响了Bedell对COOL的支持, 支持者认为,如果恢复原状,哪些可以增加牧场主的利润. “如果你能让牧牛人赚更多的钱, 他们可以做得更好,改变他们正在做的事情,比德尔说:“. “现在, 利润率太低了,头头娱乐官网没钱改变头头娱乐官网的经营方式.”

The number of independent cattle producers has been decreasing as these profit margins get smaller, but it’s difficult to track exactly how many independent producers are entering or leaving the business, 根据牧场主拥护者的说法. 美国.S. 农业部(USDA)不再发布年度牛生产者数据, 所以追踪这些数字的唯一方法就是美国农业部的农业数据 人口普查,每五年出版一次. 

R-CALF的布拉德表示:“作为一个行业,头头娱乐官网现在绝对处于严重的危机之中。. “整个活牛和牛肉供应链的竞争已经被清除. Country of origin labeling would empower consumers to reignite competitive market forces in the entire beef supply chain because consumer buying preferences would initiate demand signals upstream.” 

如果立法通过,牛肉生产商将有一年的时间来实施COOL. 目前还没有公布众议院和参议院法案投票的时间表.

《头头娱乐游戏官网》提供有关美国农村的新闻、评论和分析. 你可以在 dailyyonder.com.

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